A type of photography os Black and White Photography. I have decided to mention only on because I got my info. from a book and it only mentioned Black and White Photography.
A camera bag, a camera instruction manual, extra batteries (rechargeable or non rechargeable) and memory cards, battery grips (for more battery life but is harder to carry), high-capacity batteries (if you need the extra power when you are taking many photos), solar panels (for recharging batteries when there are no electric outlets), card readers and portable CD burners (able to transfer images without using the camera), tripod(s), monopods, external flash, off-camera flash, flash brackets, ring lights(for very close up), sync cables (for off-camera flash) and slaves (small sensors that trigger a flash when another nearby flash goes of), infrared wireless tech (to take multiple flashes without sync cables all over the place), diffusers and bounce cards (soften flash) are needed in photography. Some of them are just add-ons.
Aperture is the size of the opening of the iris/diaphragm in the camera lens that determines the amount of light that is detected by the sensors. The f-stop number is the size of the opening over the diameter of the lens. Most f-stop numbers that cameras have are f1.2, f1.4, f1.8, f2, f2.8, f11, f16 and f22. In this odd sequence of numbers, the smaller the f-stop number, the larger the opening. Some larger lenses have f-stops that go down to f-64. In cameras, there is the Aperture Priority Mode which is like a semi-automatic mode in which you set the aperture and the camera selects the appropriate shutter speed.
Focus is making the photo sharper after zooming. The photo must be focused again if you are taking another photo at another distance. For photos that are roughly at the same distance away from you, focusing is not exactly needed but just focus to get a clear photo.
The shutter also determines the amount of light that that enters the camera. The shutter speed is the amount of time the camera is exposed to light. For long exposures, it is best if you use a tripod. Shutter Priority Mode is like Aperture Priority Mode in which you select the aperture and the camera selects the appropriate aperture.
ISO is how sensitive the sensor is to light. ISO 100 is used in bright light or daylight. ISO 400 is used in dark and shadowy places. Advanced cameras have ISOs up to 1600 and 3200. Increasing the ISO means the sensor is more sensitive to light but that also means that they are more sensitive to noise.
Light meters can only see brightness. When you point a light meter at a scene, it analyzes and averages the scene into a shade of medium gray. The gray tone seen by a light meter is not any shade of gray, it is a specific 18% gray. Cameras offer a choice of metering modes. Metering modes tell the camera to analyze the light in 3 different ways: Matrix, Center-Weighted and Spot. Matrix mode may be called Multisegment, Pattern, or Evaluative metering. Matrix metering pattern divides the image into sections and takes a separate reading for each. Center-Weighted metering pattern has been used for many years and is the first of the 3 metering methods. A Center-Weighted meter focuses 60-75% on the center circle. Spot is the opposite of Matrix. It measures the light in a very small area (about 2-10% of the screen).
There are different types of white. White balance is setting the correct shade of white in the camera. Color temp. is used describe the color of light and not the heat of light. Color temp. is measured in K, named after Lord William Thompson Kelvin, the 19th-century Scottish physicist who first developed the first absolute temperature scale. He theorized the relative intensity of red to blue light. Lower temps. describe light that is warm or redder in color (candles, standard lightbulbs, 1000K-2500K). Midrange temps. describe light that is white or neutral (typical daylight, electronic flash, 5000K-5500K). Higher temps. describe light that is cool or bluer in color (slightly and heavily overcast skies, 7000K-10000K).
Rules for taking portraits of people like a pro. A good photo lens is the 85-100mm (a lot of pros. use it. Don't ask me why). A problem is what aperture to use. The aperture that works best for portraits is the f11. Another problem is the background. It gets in the way of the portrait photographer's goal. Many portrait photographers would go for seamless or plain background. You can also use canvas or muslin backgrounds as a formal background. Another problem surfaces when taking outdoor photos. The solution is to keep the background as simple as possible. Now you can use another f-stop number like f2.8 or f4 to blur the background. Now, where to focus? To solve that problem, focus on the eyes. This will give you a nice level of sharpness throughout the entire face and the eyes will be tack sharp which is crucial in portraits. The best position to position the camera is at eye-level and place your tripod around 2-3m away from your subject. There is a rule that many pros. use that is to position your subject's eyes 1/3 from the top of the frame. You can also zoom into tour subject so the entire face fills the frame and try zooming into your subject until the top/bottom or sides of the head are out of the frame. In the afternoon, if you take a portrait, the light will cast hard, unflattering photos. We can solve this problem by taking photos in the shade where the light is softer and the shadows are less visible. If you are taking photos indoors and want to take a great photo, position your subject beside a window that does not get direct sunlight. The trick to getting great sunset photos is to aim the flash at the sky, hold down the shutter button down halfway, recompose your shot by aiming at the subject and press the shutter button. The subject can be seen by the flash but the background is still dark, so that's how you take a sunset photo like a pro. Finally, you can use a collapsible reflector to bounce or reflect light to the subject.
There are many techniques. One of which I like is the High-Speed photography because although it happens very fast, the image seems like it is slow-mo. It is used by using a sound sensor. Other techniques can be found at http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/04/22/the-ultimate-photography-round-up/
Sources: The Digital Photography Book by Scott Kelby, REAL WORLD DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY 2ND EDITION by KATRIN EISMANN, SEAN DUGGAN, and TIM GREY